The following countries are named in the Presidential Determination for Major Drug Producing and Transit Countries
(International Narcotics Control Majors List) - Fiscal Year 2014 (September 2013)

Named and Cited:

Bolivia, Myanmar (Burma), Venezuela


Afghanistan, the Bahamas, Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti,
Honduras, India, Jamaica, Laos, Mexico, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Panama, Peru.

Drug Producing and Trafficking Trends in Strategic Areas

In addition to the listed countries, the following notable drug production and trafficking trends were observed in the
preparation of this determination.


Afghanistan is the world's largest grower of illegal opium poppy and produces approximately 90 percent of the world's
illicit opium. Nearly all poppy cultivation occurs in the southern and western parts of the country, especially Helmand
Province. Instability in these regions allows criminal networks, insurgent groups, and illicit cultivation and drug
production to thrive.

Most recently, opium production in Afghanistan declined in spite of an increase in the total ground area under poppy
cultivation. The drop stemmed primarily from crop disease and poor conditions as some farmers growing illegal crops
moved to less hospitable agricultural growing regions. Countering the opium trade remains an uphill struggle and a
long-term challenge. Working with Afghan partners, international allies and multilateral organizations, the United States
continues to support the commitment to establish effective and sustainable Afghan-led programs that are critical to
Afghan security and regional stability.

Afghanistan has continued to take greater responsibility to design and implement its own anti-narcotics programs. The
government aggressively eradicated illicit opium poppy during the most recent growing season, as well as carrying out
alternative livelihoods and demand reduction policies. To help stem the country's growing domestic drug abuse, the
United States has funded a scientifically based survey of urban areas to determine prevalence of use, including among
children, and is funding more than 60 in- and out-patient drug treatment centers. The United States supports a wide
range of other illegal crop controls, alternative development, drug awareness and treatment projects, including training
and treatment service delivery programs implemented through international organizations.

As we approach the 2014 withdrawal of international forces from Afghanistan, the country requires continued
international support. Even greater efforts are needed to bring counternarcotics programs into the mainstream of social
and economic development strategies to successfully curb illegal drug cultivation and production of opium as well as the
high use of opiates among the Afghan population.

The Caribbean

Criminal activity in Caribbean states, as a drug-transit zone for illegal substances, is of deep concern to the United
States. United States-bound trafficking in cocaine through the Caribbean dramatically increased from five percent of the
total in 2011 to nine percent in 2012. A central response to this threat by the United States and 13 Caribbean partner
nations is the Caribbean Basin Security Initiative (CBSI) which is specifically designed to address citizen safety by
fostering a wide range of crime prevention programs.

Although the problems are daunting, concrete results are being achieved through the support of CBSI, European
organizations, and the Organization of American States (OAS) Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission. Through
CBSI, some 2,500 Caribbean police officers were trained in the Dominican Republic, a country that has undertaken an
aggressive counternarcotics institution building program. Moreover, the United States is training thousands of
Caribbean officials elsewhere in the region on fundamental subjects such as crime scene and homicide investigation.
CBSI programs are upgrading the ability of Caribbean partners to investigate complex financial crimes, manage forfeited
or seized assets, and prosecute criminals. A range of programs are building awareness, upgrading treatment facilities,
and fostering the creation of drug courts as alternatives to incarceration for non-violent offenders. The work of a violent
crimes task force in St. Kitts and Nevis, mentored by U.S. officials, helped to reduce homicides in St. Kitts and Nevis by
41 percent.

Central America

The seven Central American nations are considered major drug transit countries that significantly affect the United
States: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama. United States Government
analysts estimate that approximately 90 percent of illegal drugs from South America destined for the United States are
smuggled through the seven Central American countries and Mexican corridor. Of this amount, nearly 80 percent stops
first in a Central American country before onward shipment to Mexico. The Central American Regional Security Initiative
(CARSI), initiated in 2008, supports local government efforts to strengthen the rule of law, lower homicide rates, and
deny traffickers safe haven.

Under CARSI, U.S.-funded training, equipment, and technical assistance provided to Central America has contributed to
concrete success. The model precinct program in El Salvador, for example, has helped reduce the homicide rate by 70
percent in one crime-ridden community. The CARSI-supported program to create transnational anti-gang units is
expanding their criminal investigative leads, especially against the MS-13 and M-18 gangs. These criminal gangs have
significant drug trafficking and other criminal links in major U.S. cities. Anti-gang units in Central America led to a
homicide arrest in Oklahoma City, the prosecution of felony extortions in Annapolis, Maryland, and the capture of one of
the FBI's top ten most-wanted fugitives, a suspect who was arrested in El Salvador.

Countries are also strengthening cooperation through the Central American Integrated System (SICA) to promote
citizen security and other related programs. Multilateral cooperation to stem the smuggling of essential and precursor
chemicals from China used to produce illegal synthetic drugs in Central America is an important component of SICA's
mandate. This SICA undertaking is aligned with the growing abuse during the last decade of new psychoactive
substances (NPS), the production of which is a growing problem in Central America.

The illegal production of NPS is dependent upon access to a wide range of chemicals. Successful interdictions of
unauthorized chemicals in Central America have created the urgent need for effective management and disposal
systems. To support the overall effort, U.S. funding in 2013 and 2014 to the OAS Department of Public Security will help
provide Central American countries with the development of relevant infrastructure to properly process and destroy
these illegally shipped chemicals.

West Africa

Although no West African country is currently listed as a major drug producer or transit zone, the region is a growing
concern. The destabilizing effects of increasing drug trafficking in West Africa with direct links to transnational crime
organizations based in Latin America pose a direct threat to stability on the African continent. The U.N. Office on Drugs
and Crime estimates that cocaine trafficking in West Africa generates approximately $1.25 billion at wholesale prices in

African leaders understand that growing criminal enterprises in their countries negatively impact national goals for
peace and security. Participants at the 2013 Extraordinary Summit of the Economic Community for West Africa
highlighted the need for cooperation to counter drug trafficking in the region. Such efforts by nations in the region are
supported by the United States Government's West Africa Cooperative Security Initiative, which will provide some $50
million in 2013 to combat transnational organized crime. Projects include, for example, anti-corruption training in Sierra
Leone, support for a regional law enforcement training center in Ghana, and the development of specially trained
counternarcotics law enforcement investigative units.

Drug trafficking in West Africa is of particular concern to Latin America and the United States. Law enforcement
investigations show that illegal proceeds generated by criminal activities in African nations flow back to the Western
Hemisphere, bolstering trafficking organizations' financial strength and ability to fuel the drug trade in producing and
consuming countries, including OAS member states.

You are authorized and directed to submit this determination, with its Bolivia, Burma, and Venezuela memoranda of
justification, under section 706 of the FRAA, to the Congress, and publish it in the Federal Register.

To read To read Presidential Memorandum  -  Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing Countries (15
September 2013), please
click here

To read To read Presidential Memorandum  -  Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing Countries (15
September 2012), please
click here

To read Presidential Memorandum  -  Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing Countries (15 September
2011), please
click here.
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