It is estimated that around 2.5 million people are subject to trafficking or smuggling every year in a business that has a current annual turnover of around US$30 billion.

The US State Department publishes the Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Report on an annual basis. It is the U.S. Government’s principal diplomatic tool to engage foreign governments on human trafficking. It is also the world’s most comprehensive resource of governmental anti-trafficking efforts representing an updated, global look at the nature and scope of trafficking in persons and the broad range of government actions to confront and eliminate it.


Trafficking Reports are available on a country by country basis and each country is placed into one of four tiers, depending upon the extent of the governments’ efforts to meet the US Trafficking Victims Protection Act’s minimum standards for the elimination of human trafficking, which are generally consistent with the Palermo Protocol. 

The Palermo protocols are three protocols that were adopted by the United Nations to supplement the 2000 Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (the Palermo Convention). They are:

  • the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially women and children; 

  • the Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air.

  • the Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing and Trafficking in firearms, their parts and components and ammunition